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2015-1-26 10:17|鿴:8840|:0|:С

ӢAtheismڹϣָһֲڵ˼۲ûͳһѧ˼룬һЩ߿ȫκγȻһЩ߿ռαѧྭ֪ͬۡۻΪû񣬲֪ΪĴDzֱ֪ȷۡ

һԴϣָǶԽϹΪܵڽеķ̬ȣ˼Ϳѧ۵ĴԼڽ̵࣬һĶΧҲխһԳΪߡ˳18͡죬˿ԹƣijԼռ˿2.3%ռ11.9%

ûо֤֧֣߶ԳȻֻ̬ȡ۵ijݰʾһ֤Լ֤ҲѧѧʷѧȽǶȳIJ֤ͬܺܶߵ˼붼ѧ塢Ȼ壩֮䲢ûһͬ˼ϵ

ĻУֻͨڽߣһЩڽϵͳʱҲᱻۡ

Դ

ĸֽɯֽ46Ը(2:12)гֵϣʻȦŦϦɣatheoi

 

ĸֽɯֽ46Ը(2:12)гֵϣʻȦŦϦɣatheoiôͨɡ񣨵ˣ

ڹϣУݴatheosἄȦŦςɷ񶨴׺ἀ- + Ȧός񡱹ɣ˼ǡġԪǰԺôʵ˼𽥵ݱˡ񡱣ΪϾϵ򡰷ĴڡڵἀҦŦής asebsϵģϣĵִͨὫatheos۵ġἀȦόӦς atheotsʡۡ ްatheosϣʻתдʽatheosϣڽ̵ıгܿʣ˫ԴԷ

ӢУһ1587ҵķʻathismeһʣԷatheΪϻܾĴڵˡӢгֵҪ۸磬Լ1571ꡣ1577꿪ʼߵıǩ صĴ֣ Ȼߣ1621꣬ߣ1662ꣻۣ1678ꣻȻۣ1682ꡣ1700ңһʵӰ£Ȼۺ۵Ĵ巢΢ı仯Ȼ۵ıȫͬȴ˶ѧ塣

סķ˹ʣKaren Armstrongأ1617֮䣬һȻֻڱмǸ޴衣ûԸⱻΪߡ18ڵŷ״ԳƣʱôʵĺָDz20ȫ򻯵ƣһʵ˼ˡκڽ̡ȻᣬôʻҪϵIJ

һָǿ//ۼϵͼ

 

һָǿ//ۼϵͼ߲⣬ûʱΪߡĽ綨һ߿ѡرֱۣӷĴڣǿۣͼϸֱСʵ˿޹ء

ͬͬijȻʵ壬ͬ۶ŲͬĽ綨ǵЩ⣬ǺֱӵĶۡ

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ʱѣҪΪǶϵ۵ȻĶûһ¹ʶĶӦĵ˶۶IJͬΪͽܾŷָΪߡҲʱԳۣΪ䷴׳ɵͶ壬ΪԼŵķӻ20ͣһıΪκڽ̡

ϵӸӣۿԷԣ飬ȻӡȽͷ̵ijȻڡ

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۵Ķһ⣬Ǿһ߶ġšҪһʲô̶ȡ۵Ķʱ˶ļȱʧĶ԰ͬڵδΪӴ۸˺ǽȥ1772ͺ˵ͯߣǶϵۣʲôûиͬأΡHʷ˹1979˵Ϥ˼ΪߣΪͬЩѾȥգʵϲûʶĶͯǡͯǶIJʹdzΪߡʷ˹һʱʾȱơͬʱҲָԼIJȷʶ

ĻУͯΪߵĹ۵ֵԽ18ǰϵ۴ڵ˹㷺ǷҲֵûɡⱻΪѧ츳ۡһΪϵ۵Ĺ۵㣻ֹ۵򵥵طߵĴڡһֹ۵ΪΣʱܿͶһɢûߡҲһ۵㡣һ۵IJ֧Ϊڽѧϵ洦ڽ˸õ澳Աȿ˼ڡڸѧиҪľѻƬ˵һЩǿʵзȷʵšɢߡ

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ѧҰᡤ³Antony Flew˶Michael MartinԼLWilliam L. Rowe˽۷Ϊǿࡣǿ񲻴ڡʽķۡݴ˷࣬еķ߶Ȼǿ߶֪߶ߡȣǿԽ1813Ѿ˸ࣨȻ÷вͬѧı֮С

ѧҰѲ֪۹Ϊ۵ʱ򣬾IJ֪߲ΪԼߣǿ۲۸Ӻֻ֧ڵ֪ʶIJɻʱ۱뾭ԾLeap of Faithıʾһ߶һ֤ķδ֤ʵڽӦδ֤ʵܵͬĻɣԼIJ֤ԲֿܵĸȡոѧJ. J. C. ˹˵Ϊһֹͳѧۣʱһ߿ܻᣬǿҵأԼΪһ֪ߣֵֹĻ۽谭ǿ϶ԼԻѧ߼κ֪ʶ⡣ˣһЩ֪¡˹ݽܡڡһĻȻߣ֪ߡ(en:Spectrum of theistic probability)

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ǿʱͬ塣ӡѧҹGoparaju Ramachandra Rao1972ġۡһи˴˴һ÷ڽ׼ڽĻӡȳŬӡȽһݴһЩѧָ룬ӦþһЩƷʣƷֱ⣬ǿ˳ΪߣԼ׷󣬶еʤ "ҲὫڽ¡" ִ繫Mingoԣ Ľ׼ ӸϷһʥԣ ݻ١һ

һĶһռѧ˭Ǵĸס

 

һĶһռѧ˭Ǵĸסռѧָָ죬ָָڵϵˣ˵

ĸףǣĸס

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֮ϵʲô޹أΪһ˵ĺӶе

ޣǺεȲԸĸףҲԸĴߣ

Ԣ⻭ʵۺʷ벻µĹԢԭΪ˵IJۺƭӡȡ1552Barthlemy Aneauġʫ

۵ѧڴϿɻΪʵࡣֱֲַͬԶһ۾ѧ֤෴ʵ۲Ҫ֤ΪĸǶ۸ĮӺ֪

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ȱڽ̻ԡδƶΪڽΪκʽΪ

˼ʵжųڽйص⣻

Įйڽ̵ȱģ

ĸ˽⡣

Ҫ񲻴ڵ֤ԻӦĿ֤˹ĶIJһڵ֤ڵ۾к֣ܶͨԱۣʶԼ֪ʶ۵ʽ֣ʱҲѧѧʽϡ

֪ʶ۵۾

֪ʶΪ˲ܸ֪oڣۻΪͬʽIJ֪ۡϵУǽģҲ˵˼Уͬʱÿ˵ʶֶȻ۵ģֲ֪ۣ֪ڵʹڽκο͹޷óڵĽۡ岻֪ۺ˶ֻƵó֪ʶ һΪԭɱ棬ȷ֪ǷڡĻȷ֪κﶼDzܵģԶ֪ǷڡۺͲ֪۵ķ౥飻 ܱDzͬԶۡ

ܱ֪ʶۻ۵֤߼ʵ֤Į壬硰񡱺͡ȫܵġһͳԼԡѧ֪Ϊڡһδκţʵǻġѧ֪ӦñΪۻDz֪һֱ顣ѧҰ׵¡˹Ү¶ࡤ˶񷴶ַ࣬Ϊ۶ܡڡһţѧ֪Ķԡ

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ζѧǽζѧһԪۡһΪͬҲɷֵĸĻϵġζѧŶֲͬʽ壬ݴ˷ϷĴڡζѧ߶ĸнΪ͵ķ̬ȣַ̬ԴǵѧijȻڻ˸֮ìܡζѧ۰ԼȻۡ

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³ǵһˡȻڽ̶Ի¼1779аһ֤д˼ʽǷֹ񡯵ֹˣǣôܵģǷֹ񡯶Ըֹǣôǻģֹֹ񡯣ǡǴأ

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ѧ·άϣѶ͹ɵ¡ΪϵۺڽĴ죬ĿϵҲͽĹ۵㡣ܷѶ͹Ӱ죬˼͸ϣ˹оڽ̵ṦۣܲΪͳν׼ѹͶ׼Ĺߡ׹Ϳ˵ĸָԺ͹ȱʧǶɵļ˷񶨣ϻʵУū۵Ľ̩ԡϵ۲ڣǾͱ봴k޸ijɡϵ۴ڣǾͱk

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߼ѧΪĸĸֲͬ塪˸񡪡߼ìܵıʡһ˸֤Ĵڣ֤ȷļԣ磺ߵλࡢȫ֪ȫڡȫܡȫơȻڡ֮ʡԡԼʴȵȣ޷гġ

ΪѧҼӸĸʲʵ͡Ϊȫ֪ȫܺȫƵ񲢲ܽһʹԼ˵硣̵ĴʼIJҲƵ֤

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ֵۣƽۣΪȡϸ߾ԡĴڶ֤ΪԲǵ¹ۺͼֵ۵ľԸԴҲ񼴿ɽ⡣˼ºضʹù֤ȥţ˵ԼƵҸҪּ

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۵۾ݻ

۾ݣArgument from nonbeliefһȫܵϣԼźk֤ԼĴڲʹ˶šв˴ڣ˻񲻴ڣߵk಻Ӱ졣ǶҪ

񲻴ڵijԽ֤TANGڵijԽ֤TAEGΪ߼ѧֻвܱ϶ǰΪ߼ѧֻвܱ϶

κĻжԼijһĻе񣨱ҮͻIJĻе񣨱Ů洣Dz߼ġһĻеΪ񻰣ĻеӦñΪ񻰡

ĴԴԹԴȻ֪Թ֮˵Ȼʴ籩ΪšڡǷڡĿٹά˵ĸԭʼ

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ӡȽڽ̣ȴɡڴԼԪǰ6ͣΨͷѧ˳ɿӡѧӽ۵һɡһѧ֧ɷͳɣųڹӡѧɱ֮⣬ӡȽΨ˶֤ݶֵע⡣

˼ӡѧɰɺҵɡ˸ųĻӡȵǽ̡

ŵʱ

ڰͼġո׵硷УոףͼΪпظ

ڰͼġո׵硷УոףͼΪпظġ

ԴǰոʱڵĹϣѧֱʱڲŷչȷۡԪǰ͵ϣѧҵǸ˹DiagorasΪһߡԡDe Natura DeorumҲᵽŸ˹˹ڽ̿ķĿǿˣǽܵ¹淶ԭӿͼôģΨ巽ʽ硣˼ǰոʱѧһ޵ҿ˹Prodicus̩Ԫǰ͵ϣѧ¶³˹Theodorus˹ͼStratoͬĴڡ

ոףԼԪǰ471C399꣩ԹμɶָΪԼŹΪɷԼһߡԱд̡ոͼĶԻ¼쳵ޡPhaedrusλͬڡһ˵˹ϡ

ϣ˹EuhemerusԼԪǰ330C260꣩ΪԴ˳ݵĹŴߣǵڽڱʵǶЩʧ һϸϵߣϣ˹ԱΪͨ\˾סڮoԴۡ

ԭΨ³ԼԪǰ341C270꣩ڽ̸λĴڣΪǴʵ벻ġȻ³岢ûȷĴڣ³ΪȷʵڵĻǵkǶǺĵġ

ʫ¬ޣԼԪǰ99C55꣩³Ĺ۵㣬ڵĻkDz࣬ҲӰȻ硣ɣΪ಻Ӧ³ȻԡDe rerum naturaвԼȻ꣬ڽ̣µȵ³ʽ۵㣬 Ȿڹ³ѧá

ѧ˹һԴƤ˼Ļɹ۵㣬ΪDzӦöκһԼжϣΪûκа񣬶ֱ̬ȵܻĵAtaraxiaԴԺѧҴ˳Ӱ졣

ڹŵʱڣߡһʵ˼𽥵ķŸı䣬ڵͽΪܾŷߵıǩ۹ʱڣͽΪƶʵԼoijݶڵҰ¶һ381꽫Ϊ֮󣬻̵ֳΪ˳ͷĶ

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ǰںͣμУŷޣ˼ӵǷdzټģζѧڽ̺ѧǵʱڵʱȻһЩ˶ϵ۲ͬķͳȻ쿴Ȼںϵ۵Ŀ֪ԵȡһЩ˺Լ˹˾ءɣJohannes Scotus EriugenaϵĴDavid of DinantɵˣAmalric of BenaԼֵܻᣨBrethren of the Free Spiritһֽӽ۵Ļ˼롣Nicholas of Cusaһ֮Ϊ֪ʶ֪Docta Ignorantia۵㣬Ϊϵ۳ⷶ룬Ƕϵ۵ʶֻƲ⡣¿ķһַζѧΪ֪ʶԳʵʶΨ۵ƣı޷ֱۺԵᡣ¿ķ׷ߣ׶ԼJohn of MirecourtͰؿNicholas of Autrecourtչֹ۵㡣ЩϵķӰ˴˺һЩѧңԼ˹Լ·¡

ո˶˼Լѯķ롣һЩаɶࡤʵ鿴ֶΣڽȨ۾ݡһʱڵڽ̻ޡάٶﰣBonaventure des Priers͸ߡס

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Ի̵1718ͱøƵرӢ뷨ݵʱϣسνġ״ڽ⡱һЩ½˼ң˹˹֧ΨѧͬʱԳȻֻ̬ȡ̫ѧҰ³ա˹ŵɯDivine Providenceַ֧Ȼ塣17ڣȻ۸Ϊ֪ʶܣԼ¡ȻȻ߳Ц̣ǶҲ̬ȡ֪ĵһ׿Ȼ²תǿӲoڵһλʮڷ񸦣á÷ҶJean Meslier׷߰Ϊ˼ңͺպſ-ҡݣJacques-Andr NaigeonѧҴӻھ忪һ׳ֻ̬ȵʶۣƻȻ۵ζѧ

Ѷ͹ġ̵ıʡ1841Ӱ˼˹˹˹Լɵѧҡ

 

Ѷ͹ġ̵ıʡ1841Ӱ˼˹˹˹ԼѧҡΪĴ죬ڽ̻Ƕ޷ʵֵԸ㡣

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ʱڽ׻ƶȻͬʱͼ˴ܰڲĹ͹19ͣߺͷڽ˼ҶͶУٳ1848ͳһԼ

19͵ĺڣ˼ѧҵӰ±ԡһʱڵܳѧҶĴڣڽ̳̬ȣ֮·άϣѶ͹ɪ屾˼͸ϣɡ

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20͵ۣرʵۣȺС˼ҲΪӹѧɱϿɣǰ壬͹壬壬壬߼ʵ֤壬˼壬ŮȨԼͨѧ塣

߼ʵ֤ѧΪʵ֤壬ѧṹԼȻƽ˵·ʵ֤ͷѧ˹ŵζѧתϸľʶ۵Ψ֧ۡ粮صȶȻؾܾ·άϣάظ˹̹ڹͼζѧ볬ȻԴз뿪A.J. Үڽ̳в֤ԣԮԼԾѧļᶨά-˹˹ӦýṹڽԵζΪǶԴDZʶJ. N. ҵJ. J. C. ˹֤Ĵ߼ǷDZȻġȻΨһԪԼΪȻĻ벻Ĵڡ

20ͬʱҲ֤ϵ˼˹۵ƶ¡1917ʮ¸֮ڽӽ꣬˹תѹڽ̡ƶγɵͬʱʹñֶεڽ̡

ǽ֮󣬷ڽĿΪ١2006꣬ƤоĵĵĪɳTimothy ShahʿָһԵijѾǸҪڽ壬Ǿ˶ʶ̬˶ĺӰҪΪԵǰػĸ˹ء޺ͷƶPhil ZuckermanΪⲻʵʵϴҪ΢Ķࡣ2000Ӣȵ𣬹ڽ˶ۣ˵㣬ý彫ء¡˹ɽķ˹˹иϣ˹۵ʿ

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ŷ޹˿лش𡰲κʽꡢ˿ڱ

ŷ޹˿лش𡰲κʽꡢ˿ڱ2005꣩

ͳ˿ںѣҲ׼ȷԭҪһһЩƹۣһЩѹۣ˶˿ڵͳƿܹ߻ͣΣ۵Ķ岻ȷͳƵı׼ͳһһЩܽͳǿ˿ڣһЩͳڽ˿ڡӡȽ̵߻شԼӡȽͽͬʱҲߡ⣬۸һ˸øõͳĻϣìܣй˺ձ˵ȶ壬ۺۼ䣬ϸ˼άͬͳƸõظߵıܻ1090ļرձ˶ͬʱӵжڽμձڽ̣ڽ߲ͬߣܽڲ֪ߡ

ڴ󲿷ֹռȷڹңйԽϡŰ͵ȣǰң˹׶˹ȣ϶࣬ڹǿۡŷĴôȵҲ϶֮࣬ҵ߽١1995ĵ飬ڽ˿ռ˿ڵ14.7ռ3.8ģ2002Adherents.comվеĵ׵ġڽ̵ġ֪۵ġԼ۵˿ڡ142004ĵ12.5ûڽ2.4ߡݡӢٿȫ顷2005ĵڽ˿ռ˿ڵ11.9%ռ2.3%ͳƲδЩڽ̵ˣͽ

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ŷ޺֮⣬ݰĴͳƾֵʾ19%İĴˡڽߣձ˶ͬʱӵжڽԺͳߵݳƴԼ65%ձߡ֪߻Ĵڡ

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ۺͲ֪˿ڱ2007꣩

Ϊл񹲺͹޳ɺ͹ִۣйĵԱԭϱߣݹĿǰл񹲺͹59˿ڽ2003ڽɱ̨ڽĿǰн14˿ڲκڽ̡ۣȴֻ14%ڽɫУԼ20̫ΪԼǡ׵ġsecularismжڼͥҵԭԲμݡ

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αǨ֮Ӱ

ᴩʷ߳Ȩͻìܡ ˹ң֮ǻᱻԼ̡̱̣

ۡڽ

ȱĸ̾ΪǷڽ

ȱĸ̾ΪǷڽ̡

ΪߵͨûڽģǣһЩڽ̵ɱҲܾ˸봴ĸ꣬ڽɱΪٵ׷棬̫ۻ̫Լۡ

ϣ۲Գ˾߿ԳκʽĿľͬأҲӵдΪӦһͬһ׼ĵձ嵽Ϊĵ֮κβͬĵ

Ϊ±Ȼ񼰲һƶϵĴĹ۵㾡ѧһ̸⣬ͼҲ֤ھȷʱݵĽɫǷDZҪľϵģһ۵ʼѧִаҪɫ½硰ɱһֱʥҪһӵԵߺͷٲܳˣΪԴһԴ±Ͱһȣ²ƶ߱仯

ѧɺSusan NeimanͼᣨJulian BagginiΪҪֳ²ĵΪäĿӡͼǵµԽһڽȨĵ»ȨĵºбҪһûڽҲжϳ͵DzµġʱΪͬʱڵӢѧƶMartin Cohenʥеֿ֧̺ūѵ͵ӣΪڽѵκᷢչ෴֤ͬʱָһƶԿ侲͹۵ѧչҲõġƶѧӰͼë󶫡Political Philosophy from Plato to Mao ԡΪһ۵㣬Ϊʷһ͵׼ʱ仯ӰIJá

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