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2013-10-31 22:28|鿴:6671|:0|:С

ãӢweatheringΪʯӴֽ⡣绯÷ڵػްƶԲܺʴãerosionʴðʯͿᆳýˮ缰ƶ߽⡣

 

绯ÿԷΪ֡еԻԵķ绯ðΪˮѹʯķֽ⡣ѧԵķ绯ðѧֱӷӦĻѧﷴӦԵķ绯ãʯֽ⡣

 

ʯֽлʽƳĿɷȡĸʣparent materialһʯγɵȱһַֻĿʣɶʯγɵɣeolianγɷfertile soil

 

 

е绯ʯֽ⡣е绯ҪΪʴʴмP΢ĴС١е绯뻯ѧ绯ۣе绯ɵѷቈӽлѧ绯ıѧ绯ѷɵĿʯֽ⡣

 

 

ͣThermal expansionΪ״绯Onion weatheringãExfoliationɹ绯insolation weatheringȳthermal shockͨɳĮкܴÿ²ĵط¶ռߣ򼱾½ʯռͣȴӦͨʩ㡣ӦʯԱƬ״̬䡣Ȼ²ɣˮĴ͵Чǿ

 

ڱϲһʯڷ绯ֽ

 

ڱϲһʯڷ绯ֽ

 

ڷ绯ķ绯ã

 

ԭ

 

ڷ绯Freeze thaw weatheringֱΪãfrost shatteringַ绯¶Ƚӽɽʮֳ˪绯Ȼԭ򳣱ָΪˮѷнͶɣʵʹûйϵܾ֮ǰѾ֪ʪڶʱδĵطˮᾭɱеĵױice lensesռͻͣfrost heaveͬ෢ʯϸСǻΪڽҺ̬ˮ󡣱ʯѡڿ桢ˮ֮ķӼIntermolecular forcesάһ㲻ı㣬ˮݼڵױۻʱɿѹ

 

񶨽͵¶ڷ绯

 

ʵʾѡɰҼʯˮϵı㣬ԼΪ0CѡʵʾʹڱΪˮѷн͵ķ绯ʯڵ»תάһʱϣʯ಻ѡһЩ׵ʯʵ飬ױ¿ѵĹؼ¶ȴΪ-3C-6CȽϱͺܶࡣ

 

ص

 

Ϊķ绯Ҫˮ¶ڱ²Ļɽalpine climateԵģperiglacialܶӰʯаѣ׵ڴ£Dartmoorͻңtorʽۿ

 

Ш

 

ШѣFrost wedgingǰΪ޿ʯķ绯õҪأоҪԲԤڰߡã౻ΪШѡШѣice wedgingõʯѷ켰ӿڵˮἰͷˮ−22CʩӸǧһ˹2100ǧkilogram-forceÿƽףѹѹͨԱȴ󲿷ֵʯĵֿΪߣ顣ˮʯѷ춳󣬱ѷߵǽʩѷΪˮڶ9%ڻˮѷĵط¶ȽʱٶᣬѷΪ󡣲ظĶʯѷ챻ƿγнǵʯ顣״ʯɽ¼ϣγм£talus slopeʯб£Scree slopeʯѷ챻ƿΪʯ鱻Ϊ״ѣblock disintegrationѵʯӦʯṹֲͬ״

 

ҵѹͷ

 

ҵѹͷ

 

ѹͷ

 

ԭ

 

ѹͷţpressure releaseΪ绯жɣunloadingϵʣһʯʴûߺ󣬱ߵµʯԱˮƽķʽͼѡͨߵʻأʩӸµʯܴѹƶеıѹͷſ°ãexfoliation

 

ҵѹͷ

 

ңIntrusive igneous rocks绨ڵγɡΪϵʳܼѹʴϵʯʺ󣬴ұ¶ѹͷšΧʯ͵ơӦѺʯˮƽչһʱʯƬ״ķʽ¶ʯƿ롣ѹͷ౻Ϊûҳ״루sheetingһbatholithsgranite domesڴ£Dartmoorҵ

 

ˮ

 

ˮãHydraulic actionڵˮɾ޴˳ʯѺʱѺһ㱻ţͬʱܵѹȶʯ˺ʱܵѹȵĿԱԵͷšԵͷŸѹƿʯƬʯѺۼ

 

˻ʯı̬Ϊνᾧķ״绯

 

˻ʯı̬Ϊνᾧķ״绯honeycomb weathering˵λ̨Ұ羰ض

 

ɳϵη绯λڰݽϵĿƲ˹̹

 

ɳϵη绯λڰݽϵĿƲ˹̹Qobustan

 

νᾧ

 

ԭ

 

νᾧãSalt crystallizationΪη绯Haloclasty Salt weatheringںηֵҺʯѷ켰ӿںξ壬ʯ߽⡣ξȺͣխʯʩѹ

 

Ϊʯɵ

 

νᾧԷҺֽѼʯҵʯγƻ̼ƵҺˮγԵξ

 

رǿ

 

Чȥֽʯ֤ΪơþȻơξࡣ

 

 

νᾧͨ͸ɺaridйأΪǿҵļǿӶνᾧáνᾧڰ߻Ծη绯ںϵķʯhoneycombed stonesҵ

 

 

пܲ绯ͬʱлѧ绯¼޺ֲڹͺͺʯһΪʪĻѧ΢ʯЩ︽Ϻǿʯϱ΢е뻯ѧֽ⡣Χ緢ѿֲĸʯ϶ʩѹ⣬ṩһˮѧ͸ڶֲڵҸˮ͸Ժͽ̵ı

 

ѧ绯

 

ѧ绯Chemical weatheringʯɷֵĸı䣬̬ıַ绯һڼ䷴

 

ܽ

 

ԭ

 

ȻĽЩ΢ԣΪеĶ̼ˮУ̼ᡣδȾĻˮֵԼΪ5.6ΪеĶ򼰵ꡣЩˮӦγɸǿᣬֵ4.53.0SO2ɽʯȼ϶ܹˮгΪᣬӶµʯܽá

 

̼ữ

 

һ֪ܽΪ̼ữãcarbonation˹ΪеĶ̼̼ữں̼ƵʯʯҼѡ÷ˮ̼лȽϺγᣨWeak acid̼ƷӦγ̼ƣcalcium bicarbonateڵ»٣DZ绯Ҫɫ

 

䷴Ӧ£

 

CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3
 
̼ + ˮ -> ̼
 
H2CO3 + CaCO3 -> Ca(HCO3)2
 

̼ + ̼ -> ̼

 

̼ữжؽӿڵʯγһַֿʯҵ·̼ữʯӿڵķӦΪǿң˽ӿڼ

 

ˮ

 

ˮãHydrationΪѧ绯һʽH+OH-ӵļӡʯˮݺӵʯӦiron oxidesתiron hydroxideӲʯࣨanhydriteˮúΪʯࣨgypsum

 

ˮ

 

ԭ

 

ˮãHydrolysisΪһӰΣSilicateĻѧ绯̡ڷӦдˮ΢ӻοӦӦ£

 

Mg2SiO4 + 4H+ + 4OH- -> 2Mg2+ + 4OH- + H4SiO4

 

ʯolivineþʯforsterite + ĸˮ -> Һе + ҺеĹᣨsilicic acid

 

ʵʷӦ

 

ڼ㹻ˮȥƶӦ֮£ϷӦԭȫܽ⡣ϷӦIJʵĵطڴˮͨΪH+ľߡ̼ˮγᣬH+̼ԽϹǿʿɻԽĹᡣ

 

Mg2SiO4 + 4CO2 + 4H2O -> 2Mg2+ + 4HCO3- + 4H4SiO4

 

ʯþʯ + ̼ + ˮ -> Һеþ̼Σbicarbonate + ҺеĹ

 

ϵˮⷴӦΪձ顣̼ܵģΪ̼ζγһΪԵҺһƴеĶ̼һҪӦӰ

 

رӦ

 

ΣAluminosilicateˮγɵڶֿǼ򵥵ķųӡ

 

2KAlSi3O8 + 2H2CO3 + 9H2O -> Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 4H4SiO4 + 2K+ + 2HCO3-

 

ʯOrthoclaseγʯaluminosilicate feldspar + ̼ + ˮ -> KaoliniteΪһ + Һ + Һеļأpotassium̼

 

һѲõʯʾͬĻѧ绯ãҪΪãڷչ

 

һѲõʯʾͬĻѧ绯ãҪΪãڷչɰŦԼİ򿨣Angelica, New YorkıӣGlacial Drift֡

 

 

ֽڷ绯лãOxidationΪFe2+ˮں϶ɵFe3+Pgoethitelimonitehematiteʯֳغɫ׷飬ʯ˹̳ΪPrusting

 

 

вֲֶܹͷųԻѧѧ绯绯Ļѧ绯ʽΪͷchelatingѧΪһ֡˻ѧֲͷţֽɷֲ֡IJкγлᣬˮɻѧ绯ĹͷŻӰ츽ʯ»һγɡ

 

ķ绯

 

κʯͷשĽܵ¶ʯͬķ绯ýӰ졣żװεʯƷܹΪȻ绯ܵƻϹӰĵϻǿ



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